Bladder Cancer

About Bladder Cancer

The bladder is a hollow, flexible pouch in your pelvis.The bladder  stores urine before it is discharged from the body.Bladder cancer can be benign or malignant. Malignant bladder cancer may be life threatening, as it can spread quickly.men have a higher risk of getting bladder cancer than women.

Bladder Cancer Causes and Risk Factors

Age: Around 90% of people with a diagnosis are over 55 years of age. The average age of diagnosis is 65.

Gender: Men are at a higher risk than women of getting bladder cancer.

Smoking:Smoking increases your risk of bladder cancer. Smoking causes half of all bladder cancers in men and women

Chemicals : exposure to cancer-causing chemicals  such as benzidine and beta-naphthylamine lead to develop the bladder cancer.

Diet: Having high-fat in diet.

Family history: having a family history of bladder cance

Water intake: Low fluid consumption

Infection: Chronic bladder infections and irritation

Previous therapy: Chemotherapy and radiation therapy

Bladder Cancer Symptoms

Early warning signs of Bladder Cancer

  • blood in urine (Hematuria)
  • painful urination
  • frequent urination(micturition)
  • urinary incontinence
  • pain in abdomen(most common in lower abdomen)
  • pain in lower back

Later Sign of Bladder Cancer

  • Lower back pain, generally focused on one side
  • Bone pain
  • swelling of leg.

Early warning signs of bladder cancer

Blood in the urine (hematuria) is typically the first sign of bladder cancer. Blood may cause the color of the urine to change to orange, pink or, rarely, dark red. Blood may be present on a regular basis or disappear and reappear over the course of days or weeks.

Early-stage bladder cancer doesn’t usually cause pain or other symptoms besides bleeding. But blood in the urine doesn’t always mean there is a tumor in the bladder. It’s more likely to be caused by a less serious condition, such as an infection.

Changes in urination may be another early sign of bladder cancer. Frequent urination, pain during urination, an inability to urinate, and a feeling of urination urgency, even when the bladder is not full, may be symptoms of bladder cancer, but these changes are more commonly a sign of a less serious condition, such as a benign tumor or an infection.

Signs of advanced bladder cancer

When bladder tumors grow larger or cancer cells spread to other areas of the body, they may cause symptoms including:

  • Lower back pain, generally focused on one side
  • Bone pain
  • Feet swelling

If your doctor suspects bladder cancer, he or she will order tests to determine the cause of your symptoms.

Bladder Cancer Types

Urothelial carcinoma

It (previously known as “transitional cell carcinoma”) is the most common type of all bladder cancers. Urothelial carcinoma (transitional cell carcinoma) is strongly associated with smoking.This type of cancer has two subtypes:

  •  papillary carcinoma:  growing finger-like projections into the bladder lumen
  •  flat carcinomas: This is do not produce fingerlike projections.

Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma is a rare cancer. It begins when thin, flat squamous cells form in the bladder after a long-term infection or irritation in the bladder.

Adenocarcinoma

It is  closely resembles the gland-forming cells seen in colon cancers.

Small-cell carcinoma

It starts in the  neuroendocrine(nerve like cell) cells.

Diagnosis Bladder Cancer

Urine Test:

  • Urinalysis: for the examine blood or other substance in urine
  • Urine cytology: for detection of cancerous cell
  • Urine culture:  to check what kinds of germs grow in it.it will helpful in check any infection.
  • Urine tumor marker tests: These look for substances that are released by bladder cancer cells.

Cytoscopy

If your doctor sees abnormal cells, a biopsy will be performed to remove tissues for closer examination. To obtain a sample of tissue from inside the bladder.The cytoscope is a thin tube with a light and video camera on the end. doctor will inject salt water through the tube and into  bladder. This will allow him to see the inner lining of  bladder with the camera.

Sometimes, a fluorescence cytoscopy is performed with a standard cytoscopy. in this procedure medicine like porphyrins are inserted into the bladder. These drugs are readily absorbed by cancer cells, causing the cells to glow, or fluoresce, under a blue light. This process enables the doctor to see areas of the bladder where cancer cells may have been missed during the routine cytoscopy.

Biopsy

Biopsies are usually done during a cytoscopy.doctor may pass a special tool through the scope and into your bladder to collect a cell sample (biopsy) for testing.

Imaging tests:

Ultrasound

It is is a non-invasive diagnostic technique used to image inside the body.It may help determine the size of bladder cancer and whether it has spread to nearby organs or tissues.

CT Scan

A computed tomography (CT) scan is an imaging test that uses a computer to put a series of x-ray images together to create detailed 3D images of organs, tissues, bones and blood vessels in the body.Scan give the useful information about abdomen and pelvic region.

MRI

A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an imaging test that uses powerful magnetic forces, radio frequency (RF) waves and a computer to make detailed 3-dimensional pictures of bladder and near region which can help us distinguish that cancer spread nearby by tissues and lymph nodes or not.

Bladder Cancer Treatments

Surgery

  • Doctor remove cancerous tissue.Depending on the stage of the disease, doctor may recommend one or more of the following bladder cancer surgical procedure are transurethra  resection of the bladder tumor,Cystectomy(remove bladder or portion).

Reconstruction

  • In this procedure doctor create a new way for urine to exit the body after bladder remove.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy also called radiotherapy.Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of intense energy to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.Radiation therapy most often uses X-rays, but protons or other types of energy also can be used.

Radiation therapy is often used along with chemotherapy.At high doses, radiation therapy kills cancer cells or slows their growth by damaging their DNA. Cancer cells whose DNA is damaged beyond repair stop dividing or die. When the damaged cells die, they are broken down and removed by the body.

it often causes side effects. These are different for each person. Some common side effects are fatigue, dry mouth,nausea, vomiting, pain, and hair loss.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. In general, normal cells grow and die in a controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. It stopping them from spreading, or slowing their growth.

Chemotherapy is often used along with radiation therapy and surgery  in treating cancers. It may be used before surgery to shrink a tumor or after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that remain and to prevent the cancer from coming back. Chemotherapy may also be used to relieve symptoms, improve quality of life and extend life for people with advanced cancer

Chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells, but they can also damage healthy cells.Some common side effects are fatigue, nausea, vomiting, pain, and hair loss.

Immunotherapy

It is designed to stimulate the body’s defenses to attack and kill cancer cells. Immunotherapy is a type of biological therapy ( Biological therapy is a type of treatment that uses substances made from living organisms to treat cancer) and it helps your immune system fight cancer.

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