Breast Cancer

About Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is cancer  that develops from breast tissue. Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, a newly-inverted nipple, or a red or scaly patch of skin.

breast is the most common cancer among develop country.In developing countries  survival rates are poorer.It is more than 100 times more common in women than in men.

The causes of breast cancer are unknown, although medical professionals have identified a number of risk factors.

Breast Cancer Causes and Risk factors

Obesity

Sedentary lifestyle

Family history

Drinking alcohol

Inherited factors: BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the most common inherited causes.

Large breasts which may be accompanied by neck, shoulder, or back pain

Some Previous treatments:     

  • Birth control pills
  • Hormone theraphy
  • Radiation thera
  • Some infertility treatments

Breast Cancer Symptoms

Symptoms of breast tumors vary from patient to patient.

Early Warning Signs Of Breast Cancer

  • Skin changes, such as swelling, redness, or other visible differences in one or both breasts
  • An increase in size or change in shape of the breast
  • Changes in the shape of the nipples
  • nipple discharges  are clear, red, brown, or yellow rather then normal   breast milk
  • pain in breast
  • feeling of Lumps or nodes  on or inside of the breast

Later Warning Signs Of Breast Cancer

  • A lump or mass in the breast gets bigger
  • Swelling of all or part of the breast, even if no lump is felt
  • retraction, or inward turning of the nipple
  • Skin irritation or dimpling
  • loss of weight
  • The nipple or breast skin appears red, scaly, or thickened
  • enlarge lymph nodes in arm pit

Breast Cancer Types

There are many different types of breast cancer To determine an appropriate approach to treating the disease.

There are two catgerious that reflect the nature of breast cancer:

  • Noninvasive (in situ) cancer:It  is cancer that hasn’t spread from the original tissue.
  • Invasive (infiltrating) cancer: It is cancer that has spread to surrounding tissues.
  • There are may differnt type of breast cancer are as follow
  1. Angiosarcoma
  2. Ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS)
  3. Inflammatory breast cancer
  4.  Invasive lobular carcinoma 
  5. Lobular carcinoma in situ(LCIS)
  6. Male breast cancer
  7. Paget disease of the  breast

Diagnosis Breast Cancer

Several diagnostic tests and procedures help to confirm a diagnosis.

Breast exam

The doctor will check the breasts for lumps and other symptoms.During the examination, the patient may need to sit or stand with their arms in different positions, such as above their head or by their sides.

Biopsy

Some common biopsies used to help  diagnose breast cancer include fine-needle aspiration biopsy and core needle biopsy.

Mammography

A mammogram is an X-ray of the breast. Mammograms are commonly used to screen for breast cancer. Once the digital images are received a  radiologist analyzes the images to determine the location and extent of the disease.

Imaging tests:

Ultrasound

It is is a non-invasive diagnostic technique used to image inside the body.It can help determine whether a lump is a cyst (sac containing fluid) or a solid mass.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an imaging test that uses powerful magnetic forces, radiofrequency (RF) waves and a computer to make detailed 3-dimensional pictures of the organs, bones and tissues inside your body.we find the tumor which missed by mammogram.

PET/CT Scan

Pet CT Scan is merely the procedure of scanning a human body by a radioactive ray to detect any specific part of a body where the cells are more active than normal. It has been seen that pet CT scan is mostly used to detect cancer in a patient’s body in most of the cases. Apart from that, the use of Pet CT Scan has also increased a lot in several other types of treatments as it helps the doctors understand the size,shape and precise location of tumor.

Breast cancer treatments

Surgery

  • Lumpectomy: I doctor removes the tumor while leaving your breast intact.
  • Masectomy:  doctor surgically removes all of your breast tissue including the tumor and connecting tissue
  • Breast Reconstruction : It i s procdure of choosing how you want to look after breast cancer treatment.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy also called radiotherapy.Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of intense energy to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.Radiation therapy most often uses X-rays, but protons or other types of energy also can be used.

Radiation therapy is often used along with chemotherapy.At high doses, radiation therapy kills cancer cells or slows their growth by damaging their DNA. Cancer cells whose DNA is damaged beyond repair stop dividing or die. When the damaged cells die, they are broken down and removed by the body.

it often causes side effects. These are different for each person. Some common side effects are fatigue, dry mouth,nausea, vomiting, pain, and hair loss.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. In general, normal cells grow and die in a controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. It stopping them from spreading, or slowing their growth.

Chemotherapy is often used along with radiation therapy and surgery  in treating cancers. It may be used before surgery to shrink a tumor or after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that remain and to prevent the cancer from coming back. Chemotherapy may also be used to relieve symptoms, improve quality of life and extend life for people with advanced cancer

Chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells, but they can also damage healthy cells.Some common side effects are fatigue, nausea, vomiting, pain, and hair loss.

Hormone therapy

Hormonal therapy medicines treat hormone-receptor-positive breast cancers in two ways:

  • by lowering the amount of the hormone estrogen in the body
  • by blocking the action of estrogen on breast cancer cells

Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy blocks the growth of cancer cells by interfering with specific targeted molecules needed for carcinogenesis and tumor growth.

Immunotherapy

It is designed to stimulate the body’s defenses to attack and kill cancer cells. Immunotherapy is a type of biological therapy(  Biological therapy is a type of treatment that uses substances made from living organisms to treat cancer) and it helps your immune system fight cancer.

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