Colorectal Cancer

About Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in the rectum or colon.The colon is also known as the large intestine. The rectum is at the end of the colon. Two-thirds of colorectal cancers are colon cancers.

Colon cancer and rectal cancer are grouped together because they share many characteristics, symptoms and treatments. Colorectal cancer may be benign, or non-cancerous, or malignant. A malignant cancer can spread to other parts of the body and damage them.

Colorectal Cancer Risk factors

  1. older age
  2. long term alcohol consumption
  3. Obesity
  4. smoking
  5. Sedentary life style
  6. a diet that is high in animal protein, saturated fats, and low in fiber
  7. a family history of colorectal cancer
  8. history of breast, ovary, or uterine cancer
  9. History of ulcerative colitis,crohn’s disease or irritable bowel disease (IBD)
  10.  presence of polyps in the colon or rectum, as these may eventually become cancer.

Colorectal Cancer Symptoms

  1. Anemia(Decrease the number of red blood cells)
  2. Nausea and vomiting
  3. loss of weight
  4. decrease the appetite
  5. Jaundice
  6. fatigue and Weakness
  7. Abdominal pain, cramps and bloating
  8. Change in frequency of bowel movements
  9. Constipation or diarrhoea
  10. loose or watery stools
  11. Blood in stools (Heamturia)
  12. Rectal bleeding(hematochezia)

 

Colorectal Cancer Types

Colorectal adenocarcinoma:

Cancer  develop in the lining of the large intestine. They often start in the inner lining and then spread to other layers. t of all rectal and colon adenocarcinomas.

Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors:

which start in hormone-making cells  called neuroendocrine cells  within your intestines.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors:

These are a rare type of colorectal cancer that forms in a special cell found in the lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract called interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs).

Leiomyosarcomas:

which form in soft tissues such as muscles in the colon.

Melanomas:

These cancer link with skin cancer ,it can develop in colon or rectum.

Primary colorectal lymphomas:

A type of non hodgkin lymphoma, this cancer type develops in the lymphatic system, specifically in cells called lymphocytes.

Diagnosis of  Colorectal Cancer

colonoscopy:

doctor to examine the body from the inside. Doctors insert an endoscope or colonscope into the body to look for polyps or other abnormalities.

Biopsy:

If any suspicious areas are found during colonoscopy r doctor can pass surgical tools through the tube to take tissue samples  for analysis and remove polyps.

Barium enema:

It  is an X-ray exam that can detect changes or abnormalities in the large intestine (colon). The procedure is also called a colon X-ray. The  liquid suspension called barium sulfate (barium) travels through the rectum and colon, coating the organs. Air is then released through the tube to help the colon expand and make it easier for your doctor to see abnormal growths.

Imaging test

CT Scan (computed tomography scan)

By CT scan we determine that cancer has spread in chest, abdomen and pelvis or not.

A computed tomography (CT) scan is an imaging test that uses a computer to put a series of x-ray images together to create detailed 3D images of organs, tissues, bones and blood vessels in the body.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an imaging test that uses powerful magnetic forces, radiofrequency (RF) waves and a computer to make detailed 3-dimensional pictures of the organs, bones and tissues inside your body.

 PET scan

A PET (positron emission tomography) scan is a nuclear imaging technique that creates detailed, computerized pictures of organs and tissues inside the body and shows areas of abnormal metabolic activity.

Colorectal Cancer Treatments

Surgery

Surgery is the most common colorectal cancer treatment. Surgery for colon cancer may involve removing tumors, removing the affected section of the colon.

1) Polypectomy:

If colorectal cancer is found at an early stage,excision involves the removal of a polyp, the procedure is called a polypectomy.

2) Colectomy:

In this surgery surgeon remove the part of colon where cancer lie.

3) Colostomy:

During this procedure, the colon is connected to a hole in the abdomen  to divert stool away from a damaged or surgically repaired part of the colon or rectum.

4) Proctectomy:

In this procedure  docotr performed to remove all or part of the rectum.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy also called radiotherapy.Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of intense energy to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.Radiation therapy most often uses X-rays, but protons or other types of energy also can be used.

Radiation therapy is often used along with chemotherapy.At high doses, radiation therapy kills cancer cells or slows their growth by damaging their DNA. Cancer cells whose DNA is damaged beyond repair stop dividing or die. When the damaged cells die, they are broken down and removed by the body.

it often causes side effects. These are different for each person. Some common side effects are fatigue, dry mouth,nausea, vomiting, pain, and hair loss.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. In general, normal cells grow and die in a controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. It stopping them from spreading, or slowing their growth.

Chemotherapy is often used along with radiation therapy and surgery  in treating cancers. It may be used before surgery to shrink a tumor or after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that remain and to prevent the cancer from coming back. Chemotherapy may also be used to relieve symptoms, improve quality of life and extend life for people with advanced cancer.

Chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells, but they can also damage healthy cells.Some common side effects are fatigue, nausea, vomiting, pain, and hair loss.

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