Liver Transplant Surgery

About Liver

The liver is located in the upper right-hand portion of the abdominal cavity, beneath the diaphragm, and on top of the stomach, right kidney, and intestines.It’s Shaped like a cone, the liver is a dark reddish-brown organ that weighs about 1.5 kg.

Function of Normal Liver

  1. Carbohydrate metabolism including gluconeogenesis,glycogenolysis and glycogenesis
  2. protein metabolism
  3. lipid metabolism
  4. Bilirubin metabolism
  5. Bile acid formation and secreation
  6. Vitamin and mineral metabolism
  7. Hormone and mineral metabolism
  8. Drug and alcohol metabolism
  9. Cholesterol metabolism
  10. Synthesis of plasma proteins including clotting factors.

Liver Transplantation

A liver transplant is considered when the liver no longer functions adequately (liver failure), either because of an infection, or from complications from certain medications and disorders. A potential transplant patient must be evaluated prior to any surgery. A liver might be obtained from a living donor or a cadaver.

Disease of Liver

  • Alagille syndrome
  • Alcohol related disease
  • Alpha-1 antitrypsin liver disease
  • Autoimmune hepatitis
  • Benign liver tumors
  • Biliary atresia
  • Cirrhosis
  • Crigler-najjar syndrome
  • Galactosemia
  • Gilbert syndrome
  • Glycogen storage disease
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Hepatic encephalopathy
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Hepatorenal syndrome
  • Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregancy (ICP)
  • Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D)
  • Liver cysts
  • Liver cancer
  • newborn jaundice
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
  • Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC)
  • primary sclerosing cholangitis(PSC)
  • Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis(PFIC)
  • Reye syndrome
  • Wilison disease

Disease in children that lead to liver transplant

  • Acetaminophen toxicity
  • Alagille’s Syndrome
  • Alpha-1 Antitrypsin liver disease
  • Biliary Atresia
  • Budd-Chairi Syndrome
  • Cirrhosis
  • Crigler-Najjar Syndrome
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Fulminant Hepatic Failure(Acute Liver Failure)
  • Glycogen Storage Disease
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Liver Cancer(Hepatoblastoma)
  • Maple Syrup Urine Disease
  • Necrotizing Enterocolitis
  • primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)
  • Thyrosinemia
  • Wilison disease

Disease In Adult That Lead To Liver Transplant

  • Alcoholic Liver Disease
  • Biliary atresia
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Liver Cancer
  • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
  • Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
  • Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
  • Wilson’s Disease

What is a liver transplant surgery?

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure performed to remove a diseased or injured liver and replace it with a whole or a portion of a healthy liver from another person, called the donor. Since the liver is the only organ in the body able to regenerate, a transplanted segment of a liver can grow to normal size within weeks.

When is a liver transplant recommended?

A liver transplant is recommended when a person’s liver no longer functions adequately enough to keep them alive.

In cases of acute liver failure also, a liver transplant is considered to be the most effective treatment option.

Liver transplant surgery is more prevalent in the cases of chronic kidney failure. Chronic liver failure is caused by various conditions. However, the most common cause leading to chronic kidney failure is cirrhosis – defined as the condition marked by irreversible scarring of liver cells and tissues. The scarred tissues gradually destroy the healthy liver tissues, thus impairing the functions of the liver.

How are candidates for liver transplant selected?

liver disease and other conditions you may have;

  • Mental and emotional health;
  •  Support system;
  •  Ability to adhere to the complex medical regimen required after transplant; and
  • Likelihood of surviving the transplant operation.

Where does a liver for a transplant come from?

There are two types of liver transplantation options: living donor and cadaveric.

1) Living donor liver transplants are an option for some patients with end-stage liver disease. In this procedure, a segment of liver is removed from a healthy living donor and implanted into a recipient. Both the donor and recipient liver segments will grow to an adequate size in a few weeks.

2) In cadaveric liver transplantation, the donor may be a victim of a cerebral vascular accident or head injury, such as spontaneous bleeding into the head. There are two types of cadaveric donors, both involving patients who have suffered irreversible brain injury:

  • In a donation after cardiac death, the brain injury is very extensive but the patient does not meet brain death criteria. The family has agreed to withdraw support, and it is done in a controlled setting. After the heart has stopped, the donor is declared dead and organs can be removed.
  • In brain dead donors, there is no longer any brain activity but the heart has continued to beat.

What are the advantages of liver transplantation?

  1. For better quality of life
  2. Freedom from dialysis
  3. Shorter waiting time
  4. Longer life expectancy
  5. Lesser dietary and fluid restrictions.
  6. Cost-effectiveness
  7. There is a reported improvement in sexual life and a higher chance of fathering a child in males and becoming pregnant in females.

What are the advantages of liver transplantation for donor?

  • You Can spent More time with your loved one
  • Positive emotional experiences

What are the disadvantages of liver transplantation?

  • High cost of surgery
  • Rejection kidney transplant
  • Immunosuppressant medicine side effects

Who cannot donate a liver?

History of Hepatitis B or C,Alcoholic person, Diabetes mellitus,History of  Cancer, HIV, Kidney disease, High blood pressure, Psychiatric illness,These type of  person can’t give the kidney to patient.

What is the age limit for a liver transplant recipient?

Age limit of liver transplant recipeint is depends on patient health. It is usually recommended for persons from 2 to 70 years of age.

What tests are required for evaluation?

Blood and Urine Tests:

  1. Complete Blood Tests(CBC),
  2. Liver Function Tests (LFT),
  3. Renal Function Test (RFT).
  4. Urine test(Routine and micro)

Imagine Tests:

  1. Chest X-RAY
  2. Ultrasound ( Abdomen and Plevis)
  3. MRI,CT Scan,PET-CT Scan(Abdomen and pelvis)

Cardiac Tests:

  1. ECG(Electrocardiogram)
  2. Echocardiogram
  3. Dobutamine stress echocardiogram (DSE)

For women:

  1. Pap Test
  2. Mammogram

All About Living Donor Liver Transplantation

Why is living-donor liver transplantation desirable?

  1.  There is an improved survival rate for the adult transplant recipients who received living-donor livers.
  2. It’s fast and effective surgery then deceased-donor liver transplant surgery  so that,waiting for liver transplantation can be greatly reduced.(because ,In deceased donor liver surgery patient has only option to wait  for it).
  3. Living donor get easily in patient family.
  4. There is almost no risk who give liver(Living donor patient).

Who can be a living donor?

  • Being in good general health
  • Having a blood type compatible with the recipient
  • Having an altruistic motivation for donating
  • Being between the ages of 20-60
  • In living liver transplant surgery,patient family give liver rather then other person.

The percentage of the liver that is removed from the donor varies depending on the age and size of the person receiving the transplant. Typically, about 50 to 60 percent of the liver is removed and transplanted into another person to replace their unhealthy liver. The liver regenerates, or grows back, to its full size in the donor and recipient in about two to three months.

How long does the donor remain hospitalized?

Donor remains in the hospital for four to seven days after surgery.Donors are encouraged to get out of bed and sit in a chair the day following surgery, and to walk the corridors as soon as they are able.

What are the major risks of donating?

  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Heart problems
  • Blood clots
  • Stroke
  • Death ( extremely rare, but has occurred in a few cases).

For any information regarding living liver transplant surgery,we are hear for you 24 hours. you can call us in 91 7016743801 any time.

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