Oral Cancer

About Oral or Mouth Cancer

Oral cancer begins in the mouth. It is  also called the oral cavity.Oral(mouth) cancer can occur on the Lips,Gums,Tongue,Inner lining of the cheeks,Roof of the mouth,Floor of the mouth (under the tongue).The oral cavity and oropharynx help you breathe, talk, eat, chew, and swallow. Minor salivary glands throughout the oral cavity and oropharynx make saliva that keeps your mouth and throat moist and helps you digest food.

Oral cancer may also develop in the oropharynx, which is the part of the throat that is just behind the mouth. When cancer occurs here, it is called oropharyngeal cancer or thorat cancer.

Causes and Risk factors for oral or Mouth cancer

Age: The average age at diagnosis for oral cancer is over 50.

Gender: Oral cancer is twice as common in men as in women.

Ultraviolet light: Excessive sun exposure to your lips

Poor nutrition: Some  studies have found that a diet low in fruits(most coomon vitamin c) and vegetables is linked with an increased risk of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx

Genetic syndromes: Fanconi anemia and Dyskeratosis congenita.

Tobacco and Alcohol: Tobacco and alcohol use are prominent risk factors(70%) for mouth cancer.In south asia it is more common causes to developing the mouth cancer.

Infection: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a risk factor for oral cancer.

Weakened Immune system: A weak immune system can be caused by certain diseases present at birth, AIDS, and certain medicines (such as those given after organ transplants).

 

Oral or Mouth cancer symptoms

  • A lip or mouth sore that doesn’t heal
  • A lump or thickening in the cheek
  • A lump in the neck
  • A white or red patch on the gums, tongue, tonsil, or lining of the mouth
  • A sore throat or persistent feeling that something is caught in the throat
  • Difficult or painful swallowing
  • Numbness of the tongue or other area of the mouth
  • bleeding from mouth
  • Loosening of the teeth
  • mouth pain and ear pain
  • Voice changes
  • weight loss
  • Persistent bad breath(halitosis)

 

Oral or Mouth cancer Types

Oral cancers include cancers of the:

  1. Lips
  2. Tongues
  3. Inner lining of the cheek
  4. Gums
  5. Floor of the mouth
  6. Hard and soft palate

Diagnosis of Oral or Mouth Cancer

Biopsy

Only a biopsy can confirm an oral cancer diagnosis. A sample of tissues or cells is required for a biopsy, which must be conducted before treatment begins.

Endoscopy

Which helpful in examine the nasal passages, sinuses, inner throat, windpipe, and trachea.

Imaging Tests

Doctor may recommend  r-ray,CT, MRI or positron emission tomography (PET) scans to better understand any growths on your oral cancer.

Barium swallow

A barium swallow test may show irregularities in the larynx, pharynx, mouth and surrounding areas, and may often detect small, early oral tumors.

Oral or Mouth Cancer Treatments

Surgery

surgery depends on Type of oral cancer,Size and location of the tumor,patient general health and his/her age.It is very safe surgery.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy also called radiotherapy.Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of intense energy to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.Radiation therapy most often uses X-rays, but protons or other types of energy also can be used.

Radiation therapy is often used along with chemotherapy.At high doses, radiation therapy kills cancer cells or slows their growth by damaging their DNA. Cancer cells whose DNA is damaged beyond repair stop dividing or die. When the damaged cells die, they are broken down and removed by the body.

it often causes side effects. These are different for each person. Some common side effects are fatigue, dry mouth,nausea, vomiting, pain, and hair loss.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. In general, normal cells grow and die in a controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. It stopping them from spreading, or slowing their growth.

Chemotherapy is often used along with radiation therapy and surgery  in treating cancers. It may be used before surgery to shrink a tumor or after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that remain and to prevent the cancer from coming back. Chemotherapy may also be used to relieve symptoms, improve quality of life and extend life for people with advanced cancer

Chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells, but they can also damage healthy cells.Some common side effects are fatigue, nausea, vomiting, pain, and hair loss.

Targeted Therapy

Targeted therapy blocks the growth of cancer cells by interfering with specific targeted molecules needed for carcinogenesis  and tumor growth.

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