Ovarian Cancer

About Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer begin in the ovaries. Ovarian cancer develops when cells in the ovaries begin to grow out of control.Ovaries are also the main source of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Ovaries are reproductive glands found only in women. The ovaries produce eggs  for reproduction. The eggs travel from the ovaries through the fallopian tubes into the uterus where the fertilized egg settles in and develops into a fetus.

Causes and Risk factors of Ovarian Cancer

Age: Ovarian cancer is most common in older women.

Family history: Women with a mother, sister, grandmother or aunt who has had ovarian cancer have a higher risk of developing the disease.

Genetic mutations: Women with the BRCA1  and BRCA2 mutation have a higher risk of ovarian cancer.

Previous cancer : Women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer, colorectal cancer  have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer.:

Birth control pills : Women who have used oral contraceptives for long period also  risk of ovarian cancer.

Previous Gynecologic surgery: A tubal ligation (tying the fallopian tubes) and hysterectomy (removing the uterus but not the ovaries)

Ovarian Cancer Symptoms

  • Abdominal bloating or swelling
  • Changes in menstruation
  • Feeling of fullness of abdomen
  • Weight loss
  • Discomfort in the pelvis area
  • Constipation
  • Frequent urination

Ovarian Cancer Types

1)Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

2)Germ Cell Tumors

  1. Teratomas are germ cell tumors
  2. Dysgerminoma ovarian germ cell cancer
  3. Endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor) and choriocarcinoma tumors

3)Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors

  1.  granulosa cell tumors,
  2. granulosa-theca tumors
  3.  Sertoli-Leydig tumors.

4)Ovarian Sarcoma

5)krukenberg Tumors

6)Ovarian Cysts

Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer

Pelvic exam

plevic examination is usually one of the first steps in evaluating a patient with a known or suspected diagnosis of ovarian cancer.During  examine doctors check the the abdomen and pelvic area for nodules or bumps.

Blood Tests

Blood test are also helpful the diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

Imaging Tests

CT Scan (computed tomography scan)

A computed tomography (CT) scan is an imaging test that uses a computer to put a series of x-ray images together to create detailed 3D images of organs, tissues, bones and blood vessels in the body.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an imaging test that uses powerful magnetic forces, radiofrequency (RF) waves and a computer to make detailed 3-dimensional pictures of the organs, bones and tissues inside your body.


Ovarian Cancer Treatments


Surgery is the first line of treatments because of the it is very safe surgery.surgery depends on patient age,size and location of tumor and general health.

Unilateral Salpingo-oophorectomy: Surgical removal of one ovary and one fallopian tube

Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: Surgical removal of both ovaries and both fallopian tubes

Total Hysterectomy: Surgical removal of the uterus, including the cervix


Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. In general, normal cells grow and die in a controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. It stopping them from spreading, or slowing their growth.

Chemotherapy is often used along with radiation therapy and surgery  in treating cancers. It may be used before surgery to shrink a tumor or after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that remain and to prevent the cancer from coming back. Chemotherapy may also be used to relieve symptoms, improve quality of life and extend life for people with advanced cancer

Chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells, but they can also damage healthy cells.Some common side effects are fatigue, nausea, vomiting, pain, and hair loss

Target Therapy

Targeted therapy blocks the growth of cancer cells by interfering with specific targeted molecules needed for carcinogenesis  and tumor growth.

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