Thyroid Cancer

About Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland located  in the front part of the neck, below the thyroid cartilage .The thyroid gland produces several important hormones, including the thyroid hormone, which is involved in controlling body temperature, weight, energy level and heart rate. The thyroid gland also produces calcitonin , which helps the body use calcium.

Causes and Risk factors  Thyroid Cancer

Gender: Thyroid cancer occurs more often in women than in men.

Hereditary conditions: Genetic syndromes that increase the risk of thyroid cancer include familial medullary thyroid cancer and multiple endocrine neoplasia.

Low-iodine diet: A diet that contains very little iodine has been associated with an increased risk of follicular thyroid cancers.

Radiation treatments: Radiation exposure is a proven risk factor for thyroid cancer such as  radiation include certain medical treatments.

Thyroid Cancer Symptoms

  1. Fatigue
  2. Hoarseness
  3. Swollen glands in the neck
  4. A cough that persists and is not caused by a cold
  5. Neck pain
  6. Voice changes
  7. difficulty in Breathing

Thyroid Cancer Types

  1. Papillary carcinoma
  2. Follicular carcinoma
  3. Hürthle cell carcinoma
  4. Medullary thyroid carcinoma
  5. Anaplastic carcinoma

Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer


A biopsy is a medical procedure that involve taking a small sample of tissue so that it can be examined under a microscope. Biopsies can be used to investigate the cause of a person’s symptoms or to help diagnose a number of different health conditions.In thyroid cancer there are two type of biopsies are uses:Fine needle aspiration (FNA) and Incisional biopsy.

Imaging Tests


It is is a non-invasive diagnostic technique used to image inside the body.

CT Scan (computed tomography scan)

A computed tomography (CT) scan is an imaging test that uses a computer to put a series of x-ray images together to create detailed 3D images of organs, tissues, bones and blood vessels in the body.

Nuclear medicine scan

This is also known as a radionuclide scan. It involves having a chemical(radioactive iodine ) put into your body that can be picked up by a scanner.This test is often used in patients with differentiated forms of the disease and abnormal areas of the thyroid gland.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an imaging test that uses powerful magnetic forces, radiofrequency (RF) waves and a computer to make detailed 3-dimensional pictures of the organs, bones and tissues inside your body.

 PET/CT (positron emission tomography) scan

A positron emission tomography (PET) scan uses radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals to look for changes in the metabolic activity of body tissues. A computer analyzes the radioactive patterns and makes 3-D color images of the area being scanned.

A PET scan may be used to:

  • help find out if a tumor is more likely to be cancerous or non-cancerous
  • check for small groups of cancer cells
  • find out if cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Thyroid Cancer Treatments


  •  Thyroid Lobectomy: Surgeron remove the one lobe of the thyroid.
  •  Total Thyroidectomy: Surgeon Remove the whole thyroid gland.
  •  Lymph Node Dissection: Surgeon Remove the lymph nodes where cancer has spread.
  •  Resection: when cancer has spread nearby organ, surgery to remove locally advanced thyroid cancer that invades the trachea, esophagus, or other structures.

Support services(Treatments)

  • Speech-language pathology
  • Voice therapy
  • Swallowing therapy

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy also called radiotherapy.Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of intense energy to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.Radiation therapy most often uses X-rays, but protons or other types of energy also can be used.

Radiation therapy is often used along with chemotherapy.At high doses, radiation therapy kills cancer cells or slows their growth by damaging their DNA. Cancer cells whose DNA is damaged beyond repair stop dividing or die. When the damaged cells die, they are broken down and removed by the body.

it often causes side effects. These are different for each person. Some common side effects are fatigue, dry mouth,nausea, vomiting, pain, and hair loss.


Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. In general, normal cells grow and die in a controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. It stopping them from spreading, or slowing their growth.

Chemotherapy is often used along with radiation therapy and surgery  in treating cancers. It may be used before surgery to shrink a tumor or after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that remain and to prevent the cancer from coming back. Chemotherapy may also be used to relieve symptoms, improve quality of life and extend life for people with advanced cancer

Chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells, but they can also damage healthy cells.Some common side effects are fatigue, nausea, vomiting, pain, and hair loss.

Target Therapy

Targeted therapy blocks the growth of cancer cells by interfering with specific targeted molecules needed for carcinogenesis  and tumor growth.

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