About Vulvar Cancer
Vulvar cancer starts in the cells of the vulva.The vulva is the area of skin that surrounds the urethra and vagina, including the clitoris and labia.Vulvar cancer commonly forms as a lump or sore on the vulva that often causes itching.
Causes and Risk factors of Vulvar Cancer
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection
History of Cervical cancer
Lichen sclerosus: This condition is characterized by thin, itchy vulvar skin, and it slightly increases a woman’s vulvar cancer risks.
Vulvar Cancer Symptoms
- Persistent itching
- Wart-like growths on the vulva
- Thickened skin, a lump or growth on the vulva
- A white area that feels rough
- Changes in the appearance of a mole on the vulva
- Burning sensation while urinating
- Bleeding and discharge not associated with menstruation
- An open sore or ulcer that lasts more than a month.
Vulvar Cancer Types
- Squamous cell carcinoma
Diagnosis of Vulvar Cancer
A doctor examines the vagina,Vulva, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and rectum for things like nodules or bumps.
A biopsy is a medical procedure that involve taking a small sample of tissue so that it can be examined under a microscope. Biopsies can be used to investigate the cause of a person’s symptoms or to help diagnose a number of different health conditions.
Sentinel lymph node biopsy: In this biopsy doctor remove the nearest lymph nodes where cancer present.
CT Scan (computed tomography scan)
A computed tomography (CT) scan is an imaging test that uses a computer to put a series of x-ray images together to create detailed 3D images of organs, tissues, bones and blood vessels in the body.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an imaging test that uses powerful magnetic forces, radiofrequency (RF) waves and a computer to make detailed 3-dimensional pictures of the organs, bones and tissues inside your body.
Pet CT Scan is merely the procedure of scanning a human body by a radioactive ray to detect any specific part of a body where the cells are more active than normal. It has been seen that pet CT scan is mostly used to detect cancer in a patient’s body in most of the cases. Apart from that, the use of Pet CT Scan has also increased a lot in several other types of treatments as it helps the doctors understand the size,shape and precise location of tumor.
Vulvar Cancer Treatments
- Local excision: Surgeon removes the cancer and some of the surrounding normal tissue.
- Vulvectomy: Surgeon remove the vulva.
Radiation therapy also called radiotherapy.Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of intense energy to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.Radiation therapy most often uses X-rays, but protons or other types of energy also can be used.
Radiation therapy is often used along with chemotherapy.At high doses, radiation therapy kills cancer cells or slows their growth by damaging their DNA. Cancer cells whose DNA is damaged beyond repair stop dividing or die. When the damaged cells die, they are broken down and removed by the body.
it often causes side effects. These are different for each person. Some common side effects are fatigue, dry mouth,nausea, vomiting, pain, and hair loss.
Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. In general, normal cells grow and die in a controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. It stopping them from spreading, or slowing their growth.
Chemotherapy is often used along with radiation therapy and surgery in treating cancers. It may be used before surgery to shrink a tumor or after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that remain and to prevent the cancer from coming back. Chemotherapy may also be used to relieve symptoms, improve quality of life and extend life for people with advanced cancer
Chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells, but they can also damage healthy cells.Some common side effects are fatigue, nausea, vomiting, pain, and hair loss.