Aortic Valve Disease

About Aortic Valve Disease

Heart has four valves which direct the flow of blood through the heart. Your aortic valve is located between the left ventricle and the aorta (the large blood vessel that carries blood to the rest of the body). When your ventricle contracts, blood is forced through the aortic valve, into the aorta, and out to the rest of your body. Your valve then closes as the ventricle relaxes and fills with blood. This prevents blood from moving backward into the left ventricle. The aortic valve normally has three flaps or leaflets

Aortic valve disease is a condition in which the valve between the main pumping chamber of your heart (left ventricle) and the main artery to your body (aorta) doesn’t work properly.

Types of Aortic Valve Disease

1) Aortic valve stenosis

In which the valve fails to open fully, thereby obstructing blood flow out from the heart.

2) Aortic valve regurgitation

This condition occurs when your heart’s aortic valve doesn’t close tightly. It is also called Aortic insufficiency.

3) Bicuspid aortic valve

The aortic valve normally has three flaps or leafletsIn bicuspid aortic valve disease, the valve has only two leaflets instead of three leaflets. With this deformity, the valve doesn’t function perfectly.

Causes and Risk factor of aortic valve Disease

Causes and Risk factor of Aortic Valve Stenosis

  1. Older age
  2. Bicuspid valve present since birth (congenital or by born)
  3. Calcification of the aortic valve due to rheumatic fever

Causes and Risk factor of Aortic Valve Regurgitation

  1. Older age
  2. Congenital heart defects
  3. Endocarditis
  4. Rheumatic fever
  5. Traumatic injury near aortic valve
  6. High blood pressure(because of enlargement of the aorta )
  7. Marfan syndrome

Causes of Bicuspid Aortic Valve

Bicuspid aortic valve is present at birth (congenital or by born).

Symptom of Aortic Valve Disease

Symptom of Aortic Valve Stenosis

  1. Chest pain (angina) or feeling tightness
  2. Swollen ankles
  3. Feeling faint or fainting with exertion
  4. Heart palpitations or abnormal heart beat
  5. Shortness of breath
  6. Fatigue, especially during times of increased activity
  7. Heart palpitations — sensations of a rapid, fluttering heartbeat
  8. Heart murmur

Symptom of Aortic Valve Regurgitation

You may have no signs or symptoms for many years, and you may even be unaware that you have this condition.However, if aortic valve regurgitation worsens,then  signs and symptoms develop as same symptom produce by aortic valve stenosis.

Symptom of Bicuspid Aortic Valve

  • Feeling tightness
  • Chest pain or pressure
  • Fatigue
  • Heart palpitations or abnormal heart beat
  • Headache
  • Fainting

Diagnosis of Aortic valve Disease

  1.  Echocardiogram
  2. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
  3. Chest X-ray
  4. Cardiac computerized tomography (CT) scan
  5. Cardiac MRI
  6. Exercise tests or stress tests
  7. Cardiac catheterization

Treatment of Aortic valve Disease

Aortic Valve Repair

In this treatment surgeon separate valve flaps (cusps) that have fused, removing excess valve tissue so that the cusps can close tightly, or patching holes in a valve.

Aortic Valve Replacement

In this treatment a surgeon will remove your damaged aortic valve and replace it with a new one from a human donor or a large animal, such as a cow or pig,mechanical valve.

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

It is also called transcatheter aortic valve implantation(TAVI).It is a minimally invasive procedure to replace valve,thin tube called a catheter is advanced through an artery in the leg (the femoral artery) or through the chest wall and left ventricle to the aortic valve, where a tissue valve with metal stent scaffolding is positioned and deployed.

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