Arrhythmias

About Arrhythmia

An arrhythmia is a disorder of the heart’s electrical system that affects heart rate and rhythm.Different arrhythmia can cause your heart to beat too fast, too slowly, or in a disorganized, irregular pattern.Arrhythmia is caused by changes in heart tissue and activity or in the electrical signals that control your heartbeat. These changes can be caused by damage from disease, injury, or genetics. Often there are no symptoms, but some people feel an irregular heartbeat. You may feel faint or dizzy or have difficulty breathing.

There are two basic kinds of arrhythmia.
1)Bradycardia is when the heart rate is too slow — less than 60 beats per minute.
2)Tachycardia is when the heart rate is too fast — more than 100 beats per minute.

Types of Arrhythmia

Doctors classify arrhythmia not only by where they originate (atria or ventricles) but also by the speed of heart rate they cause:

There is two type of arrhythmia base on speed of heart rate which are as follow:

1)Bradycardia is when the heart rate is too slow — less than 60 beats per minute.
2)Tachycardia is when the heart rate is too fast — more than 100 beats per minute.

There is four type of hear arrhythmia base on they originate which are as follow:

1)Supraventricular tachycardia

It is an abnormally fast heartbeat that originates above the ventricles in the atria or AV node.

  • Atrial fibrillation: It is the most common type of arrhythmia.the heart’s upper chambers (atria) beat in an irregular pattern.
  • Atrial flutter: Atrial flutter is a type of heartbeat problem (arrhythmia) that usually causes a fast heart rate. This fast rate is caused by changes in the electrical system of your heart.
  • Atrial tachycardia  :A regular, abnormally rapid heartbeat. It is like a flashing light occurring from a place within the upper chambers. The electrical signal comes from this place and continues to spread throughout the upper heart chambers.
  • Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT). In PSVT, electrical signals that begin in the upper chambers and travel to the lower chambers cause extra heartbeats. This arrhythmia begins and ends suddenly. It can happen during vigorous physical activity. It is usually not dangerous and tends to occur in young people.
  • Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome:The extra electrical pathway appears between the heart’s upper and lower chambers and is present at birth.
  •  Atrioventricular node re-entrant tachycardia(AVNRT): It is the most common type of supraventricular tachycardia which often start and end suddenly. The electrical signal goes around in a circle, like a racecar going around a racetrack which causes the heart to beat prematurely.

2) ventricular arrhythmia

  • Ventricular fibrillation: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a rapid, life-threatening heart rhythm starting in the bottom chambers of the heart which causes heart doesn’t pump adequate.
  • Ventricular tachycardia: It  is a fast, regular beating of the ventricles that may last for only a few seconds or for much longer.

3)Bradycardia or bradyarrhythmia

  • Heart block:Electrical pathyways of heart block near AV node.
  • Sick sinus syndrome:

4)Inherited arrhythmias

  • Long QT syndrome:It’s disrupts the process that allows the heart to electrically reset after each heartbeat which cause fainting, and sudden cardiac arrest.

Causes and Risk factor of Arrhythmia

  1. smoking
  2. Excessive alcohol abuse
  3. Diabetes
  4. Mental stress
  5. Drug abuse
  6. Excessive coffee  consumption
  7. Coronary heart disease
  8. Heart  tumors
  9. Heart disease like congestive heart failure
  10. High blood pressure (hypertension)
  11. Thyroid disease(hyperthyroidism)
  12. Previous treatment for cancer, including certain chemotherapy drugs and types of radiation treatment
  13. Changes to your heart’s structure, caused by conditions such as amylodosis,cardiomyopathy and sarcoidosis
  14. Some medication

Symptoms of Arrhythmia

  1. Anxiety
  2. Blurred vision
  3. Chest pain
  4. Heart palpitations, a feeling that your heart is fluttering, skipping a beat, or beating too hard, too fast, or too slowly
  5. Lightheadedness, dizziness, fainting
  6. Difficulty breathing
  7. Foggy thinking
  8. fatigue
  9. Sweating

Diagnosis of Arrhythmia

  1. Echocardiogram
  2. Electrocardiogram (EKG)
  3. Chest X-ray
  4. Exercise tests or stress tests
  5. Electrophysiology study
  6. Holter and event monitors
  7. Implantable loop recorder Tilt table testing
  8. Transesophageal echocardiogram(TEE) 

Treatment of Arrhythmia

1) Fast Heartbeats (tachycardias)

  • Vagal maneuvers
  • Medications
  • Cardioversion
  • Catheter ablation

2) Implantable Devices

  • Pacemaker
  • Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)
  • rhythm from occurring, but it treats it if it occurs.

3) Surgery

  • Maze technique
  • Coronary artery bypass surgery(CABG)

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