Ankle joint replacement surgery

About Ankle Joint Replacement Surgery

The ankle joint  (or talocrural joint) is a synovial joint located in the lower limb. It is formed by the bones of the leg (tibia and fibula) and the foot (talus).Functionally, it is a hinge type joint, permitting dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the foot.

It is performed to replace the damaged articular surfaces of the three bones of the ankle joint with artificial implants. This procedure is now being preferred to arthrodesis (fusion of the bones) because ankle replacement surgery restores range of motion to the joint.

Causes and Risk factors of Ankle Joint Disease

1)Who should consider undergoing Ankle Replacement?

  • Osteoarthritis: It is Commonly known as wear-and-tear arthritis, osteoarthritis damages the slick cartilage that covers the ends of bones and helps joints move smoothly. It usually occurs in people 50 years of age and older and often in individuals with a family history of arthritis.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common type of a group of disorders termed “inflammatory arthritis”. This is an autoimmune disease in which the synovial membrane becomes inflamed and thickened. This chronic inflammation can damage the cartilage, leading to pain and stiffness.
  • Arthritis. This can happen because of a past injury of your joint.
  • Infection
  • Fracture of ankle joint

Symptoms of ankle joint disease

  • Ankle pain that limits everyday activities, such as walking or bending.
  • Ankle pain that continues while resting, either day or night.
  • Stiffness in a ankle that limits the ability to move or lift the leg.
  • Inadequate pain relief from anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, or walking supports.

Orthopedic Evaluation

  1. Medical history :orthopedic surgeon will gather information about your general health and ask questions about the extent of your hip pain and how it affects your ability to perform everyday activities.
  2. Physical examination: This will assess ankle mobility, strength, and alignment.
  3. Blood tests: It is also helpful the evaluation of the condition such as arthritis.
  4. X-rays: Which help to determine the extent of damage or deformity in your ankle.
  5. MRI(magnetic resonance imaging ): It may be needed to determine the condition of the bone and soft tissues of your ankle.A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an imaging test that uses powerful magnetic forces, radio frequency (RF) waves and a computer to make detailed 3-dimensional pictures of the organs, bones and tissues inside your body.

Surgery of ankle Joint

  • It is most often done under general anesthesia.
  • Cut in the front of your ankle to expose the ankle joint.
  • Gently push the tendons, nerves, and blood vessels to the side.
  • Remove the damaged bone and cartilage _lower end of your shin bone (tibia) and  top of your foot bone (talus) that the leg bones rest on.
  • The metal parts of the new artificial joint are then attached to the cut bony surfaces. A special glue/bone cement may be used to hold them in place. A piece of plastic is inserted between the two metal parts. Screws may be placed to stabilize y ankle.
  • Close the wound with sutures (stitches).
  • You may need to wear a splint, cast, or brace for a while to keep the ankle from moving.

Complication of Ankle Joint Replacement Surgery

  • Ankle weakness, stiffness, or instability
  • Dislocation of the artificial joint
  • Infection
  • Loosening of the artificial joint over time
  • Skin not healing after surgery
  • Damage to nearby nerve.
  • damage of Blood vessel
  • Bone break during surgery

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