About Hip Joint Replacement Surgery
The hip is one of the body’s largest joints. It is a ball-and-socket joint. The socket is formed by the acetabulum, which is part of the large pelvis bone. The ball is the femoral head, which is the upper end of the femur (thighbone). The bone surfaces of the ball and socket are covered with articular cartilage, a smooth tissue that cushions the ends of the bones and enables them to move easily.
During hip replacement, a surgeon removes the damaged sections of your hip joint and replaces them with parts usually constructed of metal, ceramic and very hard plastic. The artificial joint is called a prosthesis.
Causes and Risk factors of Hip Joint Replacement
- Osteoarthritis: It is Commonly known as wear-and-tear arthritis, osteoarthritis damages the slick cartilage that covers the ends of bones and helps joints move smoothly. It usually occurs in people 50 years of age and older and often in individuals with a family history of arthritis.
- Rheumatoid arthritis: Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common type of a group of disorders termed “inflammatory arthritis”. This is an autoimmune disease in which the synovial membrane becomes inflamed and thickened. This chronic inflammation can damage the cartilage, leading to pain and stiffness.
- Avascular necrosis: If there is inadequate blood supply to the ball portion of the hip joint, the bone may collapse and deform. It is also called the osteonecrosis.
- Childhood hip disease: Some infants and children have hip problems. Even though the problems are successfully treated during childhood, they may still cause arthritis later on in life. This happens because the hip may not grow normally, and the joint surfaces are affected.
- fracture of hip joint
Symptoms of Hip Joint Disease
- Hip pain that limits everyday activities, such as walking or bending
- Hip pain that continues while resting, either day or night
- Stiffness in a hip that limits the ability to move or lift the leg
- Inadequate pain relief from anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, or walking supports
- Medical history :orthopaedic surgeon will gather information about your general health and ask questions about the extent of your hip pain and how it affects your ability to perform everyday activities.
- Physical examination: This will assess hip mobility, strength, and alignment.
- Blood tests: It is also helpful the evaluation of the condition such as arthritis.
- X-rays: Which help to determine the extent of damage or deformity in your hip.
- MRI(magnetic resonance imaging ): It may be needed to determine the condition of the bone and soft tissues of your hip.MRI is an imaging test that uses powerful magnetic forces, radio frequency (RF) waves and a computer to make detailed 3-dimensional pictures of the organs, bones and tissues inside your body.
Surgery of Hip Joint
During this procedure,To perform a hip replacement, your surgeon
- Cut and remove the head of your thigh bone.
- Clean out your hip socket and remove the rest of the cartilage and damaged or arthritic bone.
- Put the new hip socket in place, a liner is then placed in the new socket.
- The metal stem is then inserted into your thigh bone.
- Place the correct-sized ball for the new joint.
- Secure all of the new parts in place, sometimes with a special cement.
- Repair the muscles and tendons around the new joint.
- Close the surgical wound.
Complication of Hip Joint Replacement
- Blood clots
- Change in leg length