Knee joint replacement surgery

About Knee Replacement Surgery

The knee is the largest joint in the body and having healthy knees is required to perform most everyday activities.

The knee is made up of the lower end of the thighbone (femur), the upper end of the shinbone (tibia), and the kneecap (patella). The ends of these three bones where they touch are covered with articular cartilage, a smooth substance that protects the bones and enables them to move easily. The menisci are located between the femur and tibia. It is work as cushion of joint.

During knee replacement, a surgeon removes the damaged sections of your knee joint and replaces them with parts usually constructed of metal and plastic parts are used to cap the ends of the bones that form the knee joint, along with the kneecap.

Causes and Risk factors of Knee Joint Replacement

  • Older age
  • Osteoarthritis: It is Commonly known as wear-and-tear arthritis, osteoarthritis damages the slick cartilage that covers the ends of bones and helps joints move smoothly. It usually occurs in people 50 years of age and older and often in individuals with a family history of arthritis.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common type of a group of disorders termed “inflammatory arthritis”. This is an autoimmune disease in which the synovial membrane becomes inflamed and thickened. This chronic inflammation can damage the cartilage, leading to pain and stiffness.
  • Post-traumatic arthritis. This can follow a serious knee injury. Fractures of the bones surrounding the knee or tears of the knee ligaments may damage the articular cartilage over time, causing knee pain and limiting knee function.

Symptoms of Knee Joint Disease

  • Knee pain that limits everyday activities, such as walking or bending
  • Knee pain that continues while resting, either day or night
  • Stiffness in a knee that limits the ability to move or lift the leg
  • Inadequate pain relief from anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, or walking supports.

Orthopedic Evaluation

  1. Medical history :orthopedic surgeon will gather information about your general health and ask questions about the extent of your knee pain and how it affects your ability to perform everyday activities.
  2. Physical examination: This will assess hip mobility, strength, and alignment.
  3. Blood tests: It is also helpful the evaluation of the condition such as arthritis.
  4. X-rays: Which help to determine the extent of damage or deformity in your knee.
  5. MRI(magnetic resonance imaging ): It may be needed to determine the condition of the bone and soft tissues of your knee.

Surgery of Knee Joint

During this procedure,To perform a hip replacement, your surgeon

  • The doctor will remove the damaged surfaces of the knee joint and resurface the knee joint with the prosthesis.
  • The knee prosthesis is made up of metal and plastic. The most common type of artificial knee prosthesis is a cemented prosthesis.
  • A cemented prosthesis attaches to the bone with surgical cement.
  • The prosthesis is generally comprised of 3 components: the tibial component (to resurface the top of the tibia, or shin bone); the femoral [thigh bone] component (to resurface the end of the thighbone; and the patellar component (to resurface the bottom of the kneecap that rubs against the thighbone).
  • Repair the muscles and tendons around the new joint.
  • Close the surgical wound.

Complications of Knee Joint Replacement

  1. Bleeding
  2. Infection
  3. Blood clots in the legs or lungs
  4. Loosening or wearing out of the prosthesis
  5. Fracture
  6. Continued pain or stiffness

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