Shoulder joint replacement surgery

About Shoulder Joint Replacement Surgery

The shoulder is a large ball and socket joint. It is made up of bones, tendons, muscles, and ligaments, which hold the shoulder in place but also allow movement. Bones of the shoulder joint include: the clavicle (collar bone), scapula (shoulder blade), and humerus (arm bone). The clavicle attaches the shoulder to the rib cage and holds it out away from the body.

The clavicle connects with the large flat triangular bone, the scapula (shoulder blade) at the acromioclavicular joint (A.C. joint or the acromion). The rounded head of the humerus, or arm bone, rests against the socket in the shoulder blade.

In shoulder replacement surgery, the damaged parts of the shoulder are removed and replaced with artificial components, called a prosthesis.The treatment options are either replacement of just the head of the humerus bone (ball), or replacement of both the ball and the socket (glenoid).

Causes and Risk factors of Shoulder Joint Replacement

  • Osteoarthritis: It is Commonly known as wear-and-tear arthritis, osteoarthritis damages the slick cartilage that covers the ends of bones and helps joints move smoothly. It usually occurs in people 50 years of age and older and often in individuals with a family history of arthritis.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common type of a group of disorders termed “inflammatory arthritis”. This is an autoimmune disease in which the synovial membrane becomes inflamed and thickened. This chronic inflammation can damage the cartilage, leading to pain and stiffness.
  • Post-traumatic arthritis:Fractures of the bones that make up the shoulder or tears of the shoulder tendons or ligaments may damage the articular cartilage over time. This causes shoulder pain and limits shoulder function.
  • Avascular necrosis: Avascular necrosis is a painful condition that occurs when the blood supply to the bone is disrupted. It is also called the osteonecrosis.
  • fracture of shoulder joint and torn Rotator cufft 

Symptoms of Shoulder Joint Disease

  • Severe shoulder pain that interferes with everyday activities, such as reaching into a cabinet, dressing, toileting, and washing.
  • Moderate to severe pain while resting. This pain may be severe enough to prevent a good night’s sleep.
  • Loss of motion and/or weakness in the shoulder.
  • Inadequate pain relief from anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, or walking supports.

Orthopedic Evaluation

  1. Medical history :Surgeon will gather information about your general health and ask questions about the extent of your shoulder joint pain and how it affects your ability to perform everyday activities.
  2. Physical examination: This will assess hip mobility, strength, and alignment.
  3. Blood tests: It is also helpful the evaluation of the condition such as arthritis.
  4. X-rays: Which help to determine the extent of damage or deformity in your hip.
  5. MRI(magnetic resonance imaging ): It may be needed to determine the condition of the bone and soft tissues of your shoulder joint. MRI is an imaging test that uses powerful magnetic forces, radio frequency (RF) waves and a computer to make detailed 3-dimensional pictures of the organs, bones and tissues inside your body.

Surgery of Shoulder Joint

There are three types of shoulder replacement surgeries:

Total shoulder replacement: This is the most common type. It replaces the ball at the top of your humerus with a metal ball, which gets attached to the remaining bone. The socket gets covered with a new plastic surface.

Partial shoulder replacement: Only the ball gets replaced.

Reverse shoulder replacement: Usually, you’d get this if you have a torn rotator cuff. It’s also done when another shoulder replacement surgery didn’t work. The metal ball gets attached to your shoulder bones, and a socket is implanted at the top of your arm.

Complications of Hip Joint Replacement

  1. Stiffness
  2. Instability (the ball slipping out of the socket)
  3. Infection
  4. Nerve damage
  5. Glenoid loosening